Passive Or Superficial Learning

Its characteristics are: accumulate subjects for three to four weeks and try to learn them in three days, without the necessary time to consult questions about the issue and sometimes can pass items, but the knowledge is the short-term memory. Consequently: it does not know its learning potential and reinforces the following weaknesses:

  1. Inertia: getting carried away by inefficient habits and conscious or unconscious thoughts of self-disqualification “I’m not capable,” “it’s difficult,” “I’m lazy,” “I cannot,” etc.
  2. The curve of forgetfulness is increased by not reviewing subjects of complex subjects with self-discipline and perseverance
  3. Look for different distractors to relax (computer, TV, cell phone, games, etc.)
  4. Evade classes in complex or demotivating subjects (do not enter or arrive late, talk, play, sleep in classes)



It is not easy to reduce or eliminate these weaknesses when you take the habit of studying for the grade (pass) and not to learn to learn.   Therefore, demotivation, low self-esteem, and stress increase because more failures are recognized than successes in the learning process.

Autonomous or Active Learning

To develop independent education or "learning to learn" you need to recognize skills or strengths such as comprehensive self-esteem, primary and superior cognitive processes, efficient learning strategies, to solve conflicts of daily life and academic problems.


All these skills or strengths are resources that help to become aware and self-control the weaknesses of passive learning. It also achieves a comprehensive vision of itself to analyze all the variables that influence the learning process in subjects.

With these skills, he reinforces his abilities of successes in front of challenges and difficulties of learning, because he only needs healthy self-esteem, self-discipline, effort, time and perseverance.

The integral self-esteem

It implies recognizing the fundamental weaknesses and strengths, in addition to the dimensions:

  • Cognitive: what I think and how I learn
  • Affective: what emotions I feel
  • Valoric: how I resolve conflicts
  • Social: how I relate to others
  • Motorboat: how I relax in the face of stress

With a comprehensive vision of yourself, you can reflect on what area you need to strengthen to overcome difficulties, challenges, and academic problems, group work, family or work.

Generic competencies (transversal)

They are personal abilities such as self-confidence, self-reflection, healthy self-criticism, self-control, self-discipline, self-motivation, and self-esteem to organize the learning of hard academic competences (calculus, chemistry, physics or others) without external pressures.



Basic cognitive processes

It includes sensation, perception, attention, concentration, and memories (visual, auditory and spatial) in classes. And before the feeling of rejection towards a professor, subject “stigmatized” or demotivating; change the perception and become a friend of that subject so as not to affect the other processes. If a question does not understand it or is involved, eliminate self-de-motivation, self-disqualification and persevere in the review of 20 to 30 minutes.


Passive Or Superficial Learning